Chapter 7


Quite often, particularly with richer user interfaces, styling needs to be applied in response to an element's change of state. For example, we may have different styles when a module (or component) is:

To represent state we need an additional class which should be added to the module (or component) element to which it pertains. For example, if our basket module needs a gray background when it's empty, the HTML should be:

<div class="basket basket-isEmpty">

And the CSS should be:

.basket-isEmpty {
  background-color: #eee;

The class name is prefixed with the module (or component) because whilst states might be common, associated styles might not. For example, an empty basket has a gray background, where as an empty search has an absolutely-positioned image.

What about reusing state?

Sometimes, we may in fact want to reuse state across modules or components. For example, toggling an element's visibility. This is discussed in more detail in the chapter entitled Javascript.

What about ARIA attributes?

Not all visual states can be represented by an ARIA attribute. For example, there's no attribute to represent hasProducts. Therefore, we should use them only when necessary and in addition to classes.

Also, using an attribute (instead of a class) selector has less support. Whilst developers may consider these browsers old, insecure or irrelevant, we should avoid techniques that unnecessarily exclude users.

What about chaining classes?

We could use a chained selector for state e.g. .module.isDisabled. The problem is that this approach has less browser support. We should avoid patterns that unnecessarily exclude users, unless there's a compelling reason to do so.

This also makes it harder to find out if/where the style is used, which makes maintaining harder.

Final thought

If an element's style needs changing based on its state, we should add an extra class to apply the differences. When necessary, use ARIA attributes for assistive technology, not for styling. In doing so we employ a consistent and inclusive approach to styling.


  1. Introduction
  2. Semantics
  3. Reuse
  4. IDs
  5. Conventions
  6. Modules
  7. State
  8. Modifiers
  9. Versioning
  10. Javascript
  11. Organisation
  12. FAQs